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But the suddenness of these reforms, coupled with growing instability both inside and out of the Soviet Union, would contribute to the collapse of the U. In May , two months after coming to power, Mikhail Gorbachev delivered a speech in St. Petersburg then known as Leningrad , in which he publicly criticized the inefficient economic system of the Soviet Union , making him the first Communist leader to do so.
This was followed by a February speech to the Communist Party Congress, in which he expanded upon the need for political and economic restructuring, or perestroika, and called for a new era of transparency and openness, or glasnost. But by , these early attempts at reform had achieved little, and Gorbachev embarked on a more ambitious program. Gorbachev loosened centralized control of many businesses, allowing some farmers and manufacturers to decide for themselves which products to make, how many to produce, and what to charge for them.
Renaissance, Reformation & Expansion World History (). Get the best books, eBooks, articles, media and open access sources on.
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During the Classical era people sought to deepen their spirituality and reflected on how to better get along with each other. Another common way world history is divided is into three distinct ages or periods: Ancient History B. Easily implement a color-coded legend, apply it to your map pins, and place them on the world map template at the desired locations.
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The Scottish Reformation
In late Stuart England, print genres such as histories and almanacs were happy to put a precise date on the Reformation, but was not widely memorialised. This was partly because the complex history of English Protestantism meant that different dates for its founding could be canvassed the arrival of Luther’s ideas in the s, Henry VIII’s break with Rome, the reforms of Edward VI’s reign and Elizabeth’s ecclesiastical settlement ; and because this ambiguous past was used as a weapon in contemporary religious battles.
These disputes first prevented a dating consensus emerging, and then convinced those trying to unite English Protestantism that it was counter-productive to be too precise about Tudor history. Particularly after the Revolution, commentators tried to resolve the issue by placing the Reformation in the future.
The idea that reform still had to be completed provided an unfinished objective to unite different strands of opinion. This enshrined the notion of a long Reformation, that was a process — not an event; and helps explain the great spiritual energy of late Stuart Protestantism.
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The Council issued condemnations of what it defined to be heresies committed by proponents of Protestantism , and also issued key statements and clarifications of the Church’s doctrine and teachings, including scripture , the Biblical canon , sacred tradition , original sin , justification , salvation , the sacraments , the Mass , and the veneration of saints. The consequences of the Council were also significant with regard to the Church’s liturgy and practices.
During its deliberations, the Council made the Vulgate the official example of the Biblical canon and commissioned the creation of a standard version, although this was not achieved until the s. These, in turn, led to the codification of the Tridentine Mass , which remained the Church’s primary form of the Mass for the next four hundred years. More than three hundred years passed until the next ecumenical council, the First Vatican Council , was convened in On 15 March , the Fifth Council of the Lateran closed its activities with a number of reform proposals on the selection of bishops, taxation, censorship and preaching but not on the major problems that confronted the Church in Germany and other parts of Europe.
Luther’s position on ecumenical councils shifted over time,  but in he appealed to the German princes to oppose the papal Church, if necessary with a council in Germany,  open and free of the Papacy. After the Pope condemned in Exsurge Domine fifty-two of Luther’s theses as heresy , German opinion considered a council the best method to reconcile existing differences. German Catholics, diminished in number, hoped for a council to clarify matters.
It took a generation for the council to materialise, partly because of papal reluctance, given that a Lutheran demand was the exclusion of the papacy from the Council, and partly because of ongoing political rivalries between France and Germany and the Turkish dangers in the Mediterranean. Saint Peter’s Basilica and the Sistine Chapel were used for horses.
Charles V strongly favoured a council, but needed the support of King Francis I of France, who attacked him militarily. Francis I generally opposed a general council due to partial support of the Protestant cause within France.
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My grandfather had never been a tall man, and now he looked absurdly small, no bigger than a child. Swaddled in off-white sheets like a newborn, with just his head and the soles of his feet visible, his eyes were open and mouth disconcertingly agape, as if in surprise. His corpse was slightly raised from the floor, lain atop a rickety wooden stretcher. Beside the body, three priests in white robes intoned in Avestan, the long-dead language of the Zoroastrian scriptures, as a small fire burned in a silver urn in front of them.
The occasional cloudburst outside provided no respite from heat or humidity, and the priests cooled themselves with handheld fans that resembled ping-pong bats as they repeated their sonorous chants. The funeral was the first time I had heard Zoroastrian prayers spoken out loud, though I remembered my grandfather over the years murmuring them under his breath multiple times a day, velvet cap on his head and prayer book in his hand.
Besides my mother and me, the small group in attendance was mainly made up of frail friends and distant relatives, almost all of them Parsis, as the Zoroastrians of India are known. The cremation came later the same afternoon, the heat from the chrome furnace adding to the stickiness. The body was reduced in a matter of minutes to a kilogram of ashes, which were handed to us the next morning in a knotted sack the size of a coconut.
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On Monday, a court acquitted him of second set of sodomy charges in a decision that will continue the remarkable comeback of the charismatic year-old father of six, who first rose to prominence in the s as a student radical. Anwar had once been tipped to take over from then prime minister Mahathir Mohamad. But in , in the wake of a campaign in Malaysia to root out corruption following the Asian financial crisis, his mentor sacked him as deputy prime minister and finance minister and leveled the first set of charges that would derail his ascent.
Images at the time of the goateed, bespectacled Anwar appearing in court with a black eye and bruises sparked international outrage. Human rights groups condemned his six-years behind bars. But Judge Mohamad Zabidin Diah ruled in his favor in a trial that captivated the Muslim-majority, multi-racial nation of 28 million people where sodomy is illegal even among consenting adults, and punishable by 20 years in jail. Anwar has promoted a rival vision for Malaysia that would abolish or scale back its most authoritarian laws and scrap a system of ethnic preferences for majority Malays that ethnic-Chinese and ethnic-Indian Malaysians say is unfair.
Anwar has said his party could be strengthened if the court had ruled against him with an economic showdown already threatening to damage the ruling coalition in elections expected this year. A large majority of Malaysians surveyed in opinion polls believe the charges against are politically motivated. Shortly after that election result, former aide Saiful Bukhari Azlan filed a criminal complaint accusing Anwar of sodomizing him.
Anwar was born on August 10, , in northern Penang island, the son of a hospital porter who later became a member of parliament. He held a string of senior cabinet posts, including the ministries of agriculture and education, and had been finance minister since before being sacked. Discover Thomson Reuters.
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With the quincentenary of the German Reformation now upon us, it is worth revisiting how, and why, the posting of the 95 theses emerged as such a defining moment in the Reformation story. It is easy to understand why it has assumed pride of place in modern histories. What is less easy to understand, however, is why the theses-posting emerged as the critical moment in the early modern accounts, for there were many other moments with even more drama and proximate significance for the Reformation.
Moreover, the posting of theses had little shock-value at the time. Many professors posted academic theses, many reform-minded Christians had questioned indulgences, and many high-profile German intellectuals had written at least one critical piece against Rome. The following article begins with a survey of the origins of Reformation history and traces the incorporation of the theses-posting into the narrative stream.
The second section examines the reasons why this act remained so prominent in the Lutheran memory during the two centuries after the Reformation by relating it to a broader analytical framework and sense of self-perception. The final section examines the process of reinterpretation that occurred during the period of late Lutheran Orthodoxy and the early Enlightenment, when scholars started to revisit the episode and sketch out the features of the modern view.
The broader aim is to demonstrate how historical conditions can shape historical facts, even when those facts were bound to something as seemingly idealistic as the origins of a new Church.